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Detonation, Deflagration, Convective Burn—ALE3D can model the detonation, deflagration, and convective burn processes associated with the energetic response to thermal and mechanical stimuli of both high explosives and propellants.
Explicit Hydrodynamics—Enforces conservation of momentum using the Finite-Element Method. Problemscan be solved in ALE3D using the Lagrange+Remap approach. Such formulation allows the user the option to run in a variety of modes from Fully Lagrangian to Fully Eulerian.
Fracture and Fragmentation—The Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian capabilities in ALE3D provide a robust solution for high velocity impact problems while other parts of the simulation can be kept Lagrangian to provide an accurate representation of surfaces and material deformation.
Heat Transfer—ALE3D is involved in process modeling for the aluminum manufacturing industry. This picture shows a simulation of several passes of a hot aluminum slab through cooled steel rollers. The plotted temperature contours show heat transfer from the slab to the rollers, which can be important to stress relaxation rates within the aluminum. The simulation also utilizes ALE3D's capabilities for slide surfaces with friction and thermal contact resistance, in addition to employing sophisticated damage evolution material models.
Implicit Hydrodynamics—Twin domain formation during large strain compression of an idealized magnesium polycrystal.
Incompressible Flow—The incflow model solves the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations using the finite-element method. It uses an implicit projection time-stepping scheme. It is appropriate for long time scale, low Mach number flow problems dictated by viscous effects. The model can be coupled to the heat transfer package for the computation of thermal convection problems.
Lagrangian Particulate Model—The particulate package tracks individual discrete particles through the computational domain. This model is useful for very dilute multi-phase flow problems.
Magneto-Hydrodynamics (MHD)—The MHD module solves the transient magnetic advection-diffusion equation, magnetic forces are coupled to hydrodynamics and Joule heating is coupled to heat transfer.
Multiphase Model—The multiphase model allows the computation of flows involving multiple dispersed materials (or phases) where each phase is treated as a continuum. It uses a cell-centered Godunov-type finite-volume scheme. Each phase possesses its own distinct velocity and state data.
Powder Compaction Calculations with ALE 3D—Plastic strain contours and velocity vectors for aluminum powder compaction inside a rigid box.
Structural—The ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) framework allows for a fully-coupled fluid-structure interaction approach when modeling such complex behavior as a high explosive detonated in contact with a reinforced concrete column. Structural elements, such as beams and shells, have also been implemented for structural applications.
Void Collapse in Solids—Temperature field generated from void collapse in a solid material.